The Last of #MANG2049

Sadly, it is time to wrap up the final post for Living & Working on Web module (#MANG2049). In gratitude, I would like to say out the list of things I have learnt.

This module has significantly changed my perception towards the Internet. Truthfully, I have always view the web as a fun platform where we can adopt multiple personalities, in order to enjoy what we cannot freely express in real life, and also a place for basic research & staying connected with friends and families.

However, this module has enlighten me on the importance of cultivating ‘online presence‘ beyond the comfort realm of our friends & families. In a highly digitalised era, online presence helps to build a professional image and the type of our information (and even lack of it) posted in Web can make the decision point in impressing prospective employers and receiving respect in the digital world.

My Social Media Platforms used for developing Professional profile

#1: LinkedIn



BEFORE: my information were vague; profile strength is “Weak”. When I create LinkedIn, I merely add people as connections, nothing else. 


AFTER: More details especially in Experience and Education section. 

After updating my LinkedIn, I will be looking to expanding my connections. I believe this platform will be beneficial for us marketers.

#2: Twitter

As for my other social media accounts such as Twitter, I have decided to put them to better use than just catching up with classmates and friends. I have begun using it to follow prominent profiles related to learn a thing or two on “content marketing”, which is the continuous sharing of free information to keep in touch with readers and potential customers.


Some of the profiles I have followed.

#3: WordPress

Screen Shot 2016-11-18 at 8.50.15 PM.png

My current WordPress has the potential platform where I curate my thoughts through the various happenings and news around the world. I’ve linked my Twitter and LinkedIn to my WordPress as well, thus I decide LinkedIn and WordPress would be my 2 main professional platforms for a start.

Since I will be applying for internship, I deem it as worthwhile as constantly updating my information and works in LinkedIn and WordPress blog to show my critical thinking ability. I feel that these 2 platforms will prove as convenient way to get connected with any potential employers and they can easily check if I have the necessary skills. This will be an important digital portfolio for me!

Screen Shot 2016-11-24 at 6.07.56 PM.png

I do believe that I still need to work hard on building online identity, and that involves getting engaged in productive discussions with strangers in the Web. I still view myself as a passive user of Web, preferring to simply share and observe Web contents, hence I hope to engage myself more often in future! For now I have standardised the professional online identity I’d like to portray on the web, thus I think I have improved pretty much in that area.

It has been an eye-opening module, and I would like extend all my thanks to all lecturers and classmates who have participated in discussion with me!

Here are the illustrations I have done for each topic done during the course of Living in the Web!




See you guys next time,

Adelene Teo

(481 words, excluding headings, picture captions)


Reflection 5 – How open should we be allowed to access?

My comment on Nobusato’s post (200 words)

My comment on Jul’s post (151 words)

After reading many of my classmates’ posts, I realise that instead of giving the overview of ALL disadvantages & advantages, instead I have only talked about few points only.


Infographic created by Adelene Teo, using PiktoChart

First and foremost, Jul’s post mentioned the term Open Educational Resources (OER), where educational materials are given free access for research, teaching, learning purpose. This broadened my view on how wide Open Access materials can reach out, then it can make a huge impact on education. This is the reason why I feel OA is perfectly fine, thinking about less fortunate children being able to receive on equal footing is heart-warming story. However, in my comment to Jul’s post, I questioned her if the noble cause of these Content Producer (CP) are truly what that kept them going in providing free articles? What kept them providing yet receiving so little? My guess is that their devotion to their field of study motivates them to keep it advancing. Education (as mentioned in my Topic 5 post) is essentially sharing, and Jul’s reply supports this sentiment in that findings “should be shared and built upon so that everyone can help one another out to solve a problem that may be out there”.


Just like Batman – Content Provider is the unsung hero (Gif Source here)

Nobusato’s post dwelves deeper into the topic of publishing cost, and states “OA deems that the author is responsible for absorbing the publication fees while the user enjoys it free”. In relation to my comment in Jul’s comment, I commented on how we can reduce the burden of CP. In some of my suggestions, I believe it is unethical to force users to disable ad-disabler (such as AdBlock) in browsing OA articles, however it is a fair price in exchange to receiving free articles. Small gestures such as donation, allowing advertisement are actions that we users should consider in showing gratitude to the unsung heroes – CP.


Nobusato has clearly illustrated what happened if information is made freely available. Graphic done by Nobusato (Source here)

The knowledge I have obtained is invaluable as I have learnt the increasing importance of being responsible in using the content available in Web. No more simply copying and pasting, taking Google images. Relating to Topic 4, I believe this reinforces another ethical behaviour as Internet user.


Illustration by Adelene Teo.

Open Access – How open should we be allowed to access?

The basic summary of this topic. Video by Adelene Teo, created in PowToon

Without the wealth of Internet, in creating this post I would have to travel to library to search for relevant books and photocopied pages that I deemed as useful. Now, open access (OA) of Internet in websites such as Google Scholar, Springer has significantly improve the accessibility of knowledge to every Internet user anytime and anywhere, without having to have the financial capability to pay for every article read.

What is Open Access (OA)?

It refers to allowing individuals and institutions unrestricted access to content published in scholarly, peer-reviewed publications. Unlike the traditional subscription-based publishing models, open access content is available without having to purchase or subscribe to the book or journal in which the content is published. (I.G.I Global, 2016)

However, have we ever take a step back and ponder upon the creator of these content made online? They are content producer (CP).

Advantages to a content producer of making their materials freely available online


Overview of Advantages of OA to content producer – Illustration by Adelene Teo

With distribution of their scientific research made available free, I believe it helps to branch out CP’s, or CP’s institution networks and motivates prospective learners in researching specific subject. By openly publishing, creating online resources/tutorials, actively responding to audience in exchanging information, a CP benefits through integrating openness into their identity. With more of publication easily accessed, more people can easily cite their articles. In 2014, Nature Communications revealed that median of OA articles were cited 4 times more than of subscription-only articles. With increased citation, a CP’s scientific knowledge will enjoy exposure which helps to gain credibility and recognition. This establish a reputation as academic keynote circuit in a respective field of study.

Open access education’s reach is wide. Education is defined as “an enterprise of sharing”. If a teacher is not sharing what he or she knows with students, there is no education happening. (EduCause, 2012). People across all age and social status will be able access information online for free as long as they have Internet. In a comparison, higher education college students can spend an average $900 per year just on textbooks – compared to scientific knowledge that can be “aggregated, printed, and delivered to thousands of students for a little more than $5 per book.” With free learning, more people have a chance to be better educated at much lower cost.

UNSW (University of New South Wales)’s video on making their research publicly available to reach as wide an audience as possible. They have defined it as “Global Education”. 

Disadvantages to a content producer of making their materials freely available online


Disadvantage of giving free content online – Illustration by Adelene Teo

By providing open access to their scientific research, CP is playing a role akin to social workers, where they contribute to an important progress to the society but receive no monetary gain in return. Even though articles are free to read, they are still not free to produce.

Cost_of_publishing2.jpgAverage cost of publishing fee-charging open-access journals active in 2010 ranges from $8 – $3,900 [Image taken from here]

CP has to rely on advertising, corporate sponsorships, subsidies, donations, and partnerships to generate revenue. Time taken for intense scientific research, editorial process are costly. Depending on the size and how in-depth the research is, “publishing fees can be thousands of dollars for each paper“. As a CP, it is extremely daunting to have a career with unreliable source of income. They may have benefitted the public with their research, however a CP might be left with unreliable source of income.

Open access journals published in the United States (as listed in DOAJ) revealed that very few, only 4.8% of 1,079  appear to ask for and accept donations from readers. Source from here

In conclusion, I wholeheartedly agrees on OA. With richer content, there will be more prospective learners in that area of expertise. However, we users have to be responsible in using OA information by properly citing source. More school institutions & governments should take initiatives in sponsoring or offering grants for researchers in order to reduce the burden of publishing and research costs!

(456 words, excluding references, headers, in-text citations)


Creative Commons, 2014 “Copyright Week: Read-only access is not enough” [online] (Accessed at 15/11/2016)

Research Information Network, 2014 “Nature Communications: citation analysis” [online](Accessed at 15/11/2016)

EduCause, Center for American Progress, 2012 “How Open Education Resources Unlock the Door to Free Learning” [online] (Accessed at 15/11/2016)

Nature, Richard van Noorden, 2013 “Open access: The true cost of science publishing” [online] (Accessed at 15/11/2016)

The Journal of Electronic Publishing, 2015 “Donations as a Source of Income for Open Access Journals: An Option To Consider?” [online] (Accessed at 15/11/2016)

The Atlantic, 2014 “Free Access to Science Research Doesn’t Benefit Everyone” [online] (Accessed at 15/11/2016)

Reflection 4 – Ethical issue of social media

My comment in Valerie’s post (115 words)

My comment in Karise’s post (111 words)

It has been an interesting journey in learning from each different perspective of one’s take of ethical issues or misconduct in business use of social media. Social media has been such a prevalent and common part of our lives that I never did question their methods of obtaining personal information and how they make use of said information.

Valerie’s post has made ponder about the extent of the availability of our information made available worldwide and how easily it can be abused, even by the Government. I myself am comfortable with social media using our personal information in order to curate more contents and advertisement for improving user experience (and social media owner get to earn revenue from the following advertisement – I believe they see it as a win-win situation). The unanswered question is: how much they can make use of this information? Valerie’s example of situation leading to “holding personal information as a bargaining chip to motivate someone to do something for the government” is clearly abuse use of power and information. A government/company asserting dominance with information may successfully yield people into conformity and submission (Glenn Greenwald, 2014), but what is the possibility of people striking back in form of riot, protests and nationwide common enemy?

I have come across by Karise’s post‘s post which I believe built on further on what I have shared on social media ethics for businesses in my post. The solutions she suggested are applicable in workforce, but in my comment, I ponder if larger company means having more resources but lesser control over the posts submitted? Neverless, should both company integrats social media marketing, we must take into consideration ethics in managing whatever we ‘post’ or ‘submit’ online in the times to come especially as a marketeer. We wouldn’t want to be rash and create impressions that may not be true to the company we are working with.

(312 words, excluding in-text citation)




Ethical issue of social media – Building integrity and trust

There is no doubt that business use of social media has the ability to introduce many benefits to enterprise. The list goes on – providing platform for companies to showcase engaging content for strong brand presence, increasing brand loyalty  (53% of Americans who follow brands on social are more loyal to those brands ), reduced advertising cost (Grinberg, 2012 ), access to valuable market insight statistics in social media expressions (in the form of likes, tweets, shares) for relevant consumer data and using it to make corrective decisions.

Examples of positive & engaging content in expanding brand exposure & presence  

However, behind the merry also lies controversies surrounding its use in business. Generally, these controversies are concerned with ethical issues such as abusing freedom-of-speech in social media, privacy issues “52% reported an increase in malware attacks due to employee use of social media” (Websense, 2011), and most prominently, integrity risk.

Integrity Risk (IR)

I believe IR is the biggest ethical issue as “integrity is synonymous with trust” (Shira Levine from Business Insider) in the business world. Trust is a delicate subject – it takes a lot of effort and times to build up trust between a brand and their customers, yet it can be destroyed within a single social media post. To company, reputation and relationships are all you really have!

Getting compliance to established policy from the whole organization proves to be challenging as even with formal and written policy, employees in charge of company’s social media account may still post irrelevant or even offensive content to their hearts’ content, that clearly “undermine company commitment to ethical practices and expose it to integrity risk”. Once integrity is damaged, it is almost impossible to restore fully.


Case Study: Nestle (2010)

A company that suffered severe integrity damage is Nestle, when they stir up angry mob with unprofessional replies to consumers’ negative feedbacks in the wake of Greenpeace campaign.


To the horror of social media users everywhere, Nestle’s replies were filled with sarcasm. (Posts screenshot from here. Compiled by me). How will you feel if your concerns are addressed this way? 


The poor Public Relation (PR) management conducted by Nestle’s administer clearly violates Nestle’s Corporate Business Principles that states employees must “avoid any conduct that could damage or risk Nestlé or its reputation (Nestle, 2007 “Code of business conduct“)

It is a misdeed conducted by a single employee, yet it leaves Nestle’s reputation as a company staggering. Receiving backlash after backlash, it has embodied itself as a brand with social media screw-up.

It’s PR 101: Don’t insult your customers. And in PR 2010, mind your manners in public forums — especially those expressly created for fans of your company! It may be true that there’s no such thing as bad press, but there’s definitely bad social networking — and this [Nestle] is a prime example.

Rick Broida

Screen Shot 2016-11-11 at 6.54.00 PM.png

(Headline screenshot from the following article)

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(Headline screenshot from the following article)

Learning from this case study, I believe company should make use of social media to the fullest in caring about customers’ well being – addressing their complaints and concerns professionally, instead of taking defensive stance. This also reflects on the importance of management in managing the company’s posts.

(410 words, excluding in-text citations, references, block quotes, picture captions)



Convince & Convert,  2016 “53% of Americans Who Follow Brands in Social Are More Loyal To Those Brands” [online] written by 

Discussion panel, 2014 “Social Media: To like or not to like” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)

One million by One million Blog, 2011 “New Threats Bring New Opportunities For Websense, Symantec” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)

Shira Levine, 2010 “The Importance of Keeping Your Integrity in Business” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)

Institute of Business Ethics, 2011 “The Ethical Challenges of Social Media” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)

The Guardian, 2010 “Nestlé hit by Facebook “anti-social” media surge” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)

Nestle, 2007 “Code of business conduct” [online] (Last visited: 11/11/2016)



Reflection 3 – We are going digital!

Comment on Maureen’s post

Comment on Zin’s post 

Screen Shot 2016-11-10 at 3.20.04 PM.pngAfter graduation, comes the journey into the job industry. (Image from Unsplash)

Researching on this topic has made me realise the importance of building a professional digital authentic profile. I mean, It is a task we have to undertake first and foremost before stepping in to the job industry.

It has been an interesting ride reading course mates’ respective ways to build professional digital authentic profile. Some interesting common point majority have brought up is: LinkedIn is a necessary job tool, serving as an online portfolio. Hence, LinkedIn profile should be created first and foremost. Fill in your experiences, history, profile picture, in order to build a professional digital CV in LinkedIn. After LinkedIn profile is established, then we should proceed to branch out to other relevant social media platforms. Zin’s point about SEO “with tweaking of SEO, your professional profile should be shown on the top and accessible for employers to view” reflects on how we make use of keywords in our profile, ones that are related to our job force. (For example, a web designer may use keywords such as “HTML”, “CSS”, “Front-end”, “Photoshop”).

Maureen has suggested in compiling a list of social media accounts, in a form of listography or sidebar templates, to maximise ‘your personal brand’ exposure to audience (including recruiters) in any social platform. In my comment, I expressed the concern of recruiter’s bad judgment towards current/potential employees should one has too many social accounts and very active in social media, citing on too much free time or no task focus. From Maureen’s reply, the responsibility falls to us in keeping our time spent on those platforms under control. An employees updating status to their blog/social media for every minute will show unfocused working behaviours.

With so many important conditions regarding professional digital profile, I believe this topic should be brought up and educated islandwide around Singapore more frequently.

(310 words)

We are going digital!

Here’s what recruitment landscape looks today. By 2014, 93% of companies are integrating social media to their recruitment process, in order to check how immersed you are in digital and marketing world and to get better understanding of you as a whole, outside of resume and name card descriptions. Hence, start checking up on your online profiles now – chances are it is the deciding factor in getting the jobs of your dream.

01.pngAnd they are not stopping their social media method anytime soon. In fact, they are hopeful on this by investing more in future. (Image Source here)

In my opinion, to have a successful authentic professional profile, one needs to successfully ‘brand’ themselves online.

Niklas have stated the mandatory starting steps:

Google yourself – delete any traces of embarrassing digital footprints in your current social media should you come across them in search results. Afterwards, practice responsibility in your online activities!

Secure a good LinkedIn account – LinkedIn is the mandatory professional profile to start with. 93% of recruiters use LinkedIn in recruitment and hence obviously one of the most important tools for job search – ensure profile is proper and well-informed.

Screen Shot 2016-11-09 at 9.39.31 PM.png

LinkedIn surpassed Facebook by huge amount in terms of usage by recruiters – stressing its importance. (Image source here)

Keep a consistent name and profile picture for your email and chosen platforms.lala.jpgPaper fashion is consistent in terms of images, profile photo, name throughout their social media (Instagram, Facebook & Twitter)

Identifying objectives & choosing relevant social media platformsScreen Shot 2016-11-09 at 8.30.56 PM.png

In the the following BBC article, Peter Bowes [03:10 in video] states it’s all about “promoting what you do best, in the right places” to “focus which platform you want to be in”. (Video & article here)

Figure out the job field you desire, then start figuring out your identity and what you excelled at and choose appropriate social media platforms accordingly. Which platform best showcase my key skills? Artists have Instagram, writers have WordPress, Marketers have Twitter. There is definitely no platform restriction for different personas, and it is possible to have own multiple accounts too – but ensure it is doable in terms of resources and time and that your content is worth displaying to audiences in the chosen platform. More is not always better.

Story-telling a.k.a Blogginglala2.jpg

The power of storytelling.

Personal blogs can essentially be professional portfolio, showcasing your story-telling and writing skills (thought-provoking articles), or photography/graphic skills (photo medias used in posts). Maintaining and updating a blog depends on compelling ideas and adaptability (due to constant influx of new information and news media), which said qualities are valuable working attitudes in corporate industries, yet unseen in job application forms. This can suggest positive working attitude of willing to go through extra miles to complete non-essential, yet beneficial task. Small details like this could be the deciding point of getting the job of your dreams, and not.

Get social!

Broadcast, constantly update your platforms! Stay engaged with your audience. Following up conversations in form of replies and comments will build your social media connections. With this connection, audiences can help you improve, and even introduce you to other creators or audiences. With connections, comes visible positive reputation and possible referrals to a company. Approachable personality could be a fine quality in a working environment – it encourages teamwork, working relations in the company.

(412 words, excluding references, picture captions, in-text citations)


Jobvite, 2014 Social Recruiting Survey [online]. Accessed at 9th November 2016.

Neils Recruitment Co, 2014 Curating your online profile [online]. Accessed at 9th November 2016.

BBC, 2014 Job hunting: How to promote yourself online [online]. Accessed at 9th November 2016.

TheEmployable, 2014 How blogging can help you get a job [online]. Accessed at 9th November 2016.

Ivan Widjaya, 2014 Want to Land a Dream Job? Improve Your Social Media Profile and Job Search [online]. Accessed at 9th November 2016.